Open In Colab

Fine-tuning with Retrieval Augmentation

Here we try fine-tuning an LLM with retrieval augmentation, as referenced from the RA-DIT paper:

For a given (query, response) input/output example, we retrieve the k text chunks with a retriever (the quality of the retriever doesn’t have to be perfect, and in fact can be primitive). We then format each query with individually retrieved context, to create k examples (query + context_i, response) for fine-tuning.

The idea is to allow the LLM to better use background knowledge to synthesize a correct answer, or to synthesize a correct answer even in the absence of good background knowledge. This will enable the LLM to reason from its priors a bit better.

import os
import openai
from llama_index import ServiceContext
from llama_index.llms import OpenAI
os.environ["OPENAI_API_KEY"] = "sk-..."
openai.api_key = os.environ["OPENAI_API_KEY"]

Setup + Load Data

!mkdir data && wget --user-agent "Mozilla" "" -O "data/llama2.pdf"
mkdir: data: File exists
from pathlib import Path
from llama_hub.file.pdf.base import PDFReader
from llama_hub.file.unstructured.base import UnstructuredReader
from llama_hub.file.pymu_pdf.base import PyMuPDFReader
loader = PyMuPDFReader()
docs0 = loader.load(file_path=Path("./data/llama2.pdf"))
from llama_index import Document

doc_text = "\n\n".join([d.get_content() for d in docs0])
metadata = {
    "paper_title": "Llama 2: Open Foundation and Fine-Tuned Chat Models"
docs = [Document(text=doc_text, metadata=metadata)]
from llama_index.callbacks import CallbackManager

callback_manager = CallbackManager([])

gpt_35_context = ServiceContext.from_defaults(
    llm=OpenAI(model="gpt-3.5-turbo-0613", temperature=0.3),
gpt_4_context = ServiceContext.from_defaults(
    llm=OpenAI(model="gpt-4-0613", temperature=0.3),

Get Nodes, Setup Vector Index

from llama_index.node_parser import SentenceSplitter
from llama_index import VectorStoreIndex
node_parser = SentenceSplitter()
nodes = node_parser.get_nodes_from_documents(docs)
vector_index = VectorStoreIndex(nodes)

Generate Dataset

from llama_index.evaluation import (
eval_context = ServiceContext.from_defaults(
    llm=OpenAI(model="gpt-4", temperature=0), callback_manager=callback_manager
dataset_generator = DatasetGenerator(
eval_dataset = await dataset_generator.agenerate_dataset_from_nodes(num=60)
# optional
eval_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_json("data_rag/qa_pairs.json")

Option 2: Load from existing data

If you were already using the fine-tuning knowledge notebook, you can use that instead.

import json

# load data in from .jsonl format
def load_dataset_from_other_nb(path):
    fp = open(path, "r")
    qr_pairs = []
    for line in fp:
        qa_pair = json.loads(line)
        query_str = qa_pair["query"]
        response_str = qa_pair["response"]
        qr_pairs.append((query_str, response_str))

    return qr_pairs
qr_pairs = load_dataset_from_other_nb("data/qa_pairs_2.jsonl")
eval_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_qr_pairs(qr_pairs)

For each Datapoint, Fetch Retrieved Context with a Retriever

For each (question, response) pair, fetch the top-k context with a retriever.

For each pair, we create k (question + context_i, response) new pairs, where we format each input with the QA prompt.

from llama_index import VectorStoreIndex
from llama_index.prompts import PromptTemplate

qa_prompt_tmpl_str = (
    "Context information is below.\n"
    "Given the context information and not prior knowledge, "
    "answer the query.\n"
    "Query: {query_str}\n"
    "Answer: "
qa_prompt_tmpl = PromptTemplate(qa_prompt_tmpl_str)

vector_retriever = vector_index.as_retriever(similarity_top_k=1)
from tqdm.notebook import tqdm

def augment_data_with_retrieval(dataset, retriever, separate_context=False):
    data_list = dataset.qr_pairs
    new_data_list = []
    for query_str, response in tqdm(data_list):
        retrieved_nodes = retriever.retrieve(query_str)
        retrieved_txts = [n.get_content() for n in retrieved_nodes]
        if separate_context:
            for retrieved_txt in retrieved_txts:
                fmt_query_str = qa_prompt_tmpl.format(
                    query_str=query_str, context_str=retrieved_txt
                new_data_list.append((fmt_query_str, response))
            context_str = "\n\n".join(retrieved_txts)
            fmt_query_str = qa_prompt_tmpl.format(
                query_str=query_str, context_str=context_str
            new_data_list.append((fmt_query_str, response))
    return new_data_list
new_qr_pairs = augment_data_with_retrieval(
    eval_dataset, vector_retriever, separate_context=False
new_eval_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_qr_pairs(new_qr_pairs)
new_eval_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_json("data_rag/qa_pairs_ra.json")

Split into Training and Validation Sets

We split into training and validation sets.

NOTE: We shuffle the data before splitting. This helps ensure that the training data has coverage throughout the document.

from copy import deepcopy
import random

def split_train_val(dataset, train_split=0.7):
    lines = dataset.qr_pairs

    # shuffle the lines to make sure that the "train questions" cover most fo the context
    shuffled_lines = deepcopy(lines)

    split_idx = int(train_split * len(shuffled_lines))
    train_lines = shuffled_lines[:split_idx]
    val_lines = shuffled_lines[split_idx:]

    return train_lines, val_lines
train_lines, val_lines = split_train_val(new_eval_dataset, train_split=0.7)
train_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_qr_pairs(train_lines)
val_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_qr_pairs(val_lines)
train_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_json("data_rag/qa_pairs_train.json")
val_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_json("data_rag/qa_pairs_val.json")

Format into Training Data

Format into training data for OpenAI’s finetuning endpoints.

NOTE: We don’t use our OpenAIFinetuningHandler because that logs the full input prompt including context as the user message. Here we just want to log the query as the user message, because we want to fine-tune gpt-3.5-turbo to “bake in knowledge” into the fine-tuned model.

def save_openai_data(dataset, out_path):
    # out_fp = open("data_rag/qa_pairs_openai.jsonl", "w")
    out_fp = open(out_path, "w")
    # TODO: try with different system prompts
    system_prompt = {
        "role": "system",
        "content": (
            "You are a helpful assistant helping to answer questions about the"
            " Llama 2 paper."
    train_qr_pairs = dataset.qr_pairs
    for line in train_qr_pairs:
        query, response = line
        user_prompt = {"role": "user", "content": query}
        assistant_prompt = {"role": "assistant", "content": response}
        out_dict = {
            "messages": [system_prompt, user_prompt, assistant_prompt],
        out_fp.write(json.dumps(out_dict) + "\n")
save_openai_data(train_dataset, "data_rag/qa_pairs_openai.jsonl")

Fine-tune the Model

from llama_index.finetuning import OpenAIFinetuneEngine
finetune_engine = OpenAIFinetuneEngine(
    # start_job_id="<start-job-id>"  # if you have an existing job, can specify id here
<FineTuningJob fine_tuning.job id=ftjob-Rue4Yti7XpddPFYB6CnZadGo at 0x2cf346750> JSON: {
  "object": "fine_tuning.job",
  "id": "ftjob-Rue4Yti7XpddPFYB6CnZadGo",
  "model": "gpt-3.5-turbo-0613",
  "created_at": 1696407754,
  "finished_at": 1696411978,
  "fine_tuned_model": "ft:gpt-3.5-turbo-0613:llamaindex::85sXTAx1",
  "organization_id": "org-1ZDAvajC6v2ZtAP9hLEIsXRz",
  "result_files": [
  "status": "succeeded",
  "validation_file": null,
  "training_file": "file-0iLbjiXwv33i1eZQYNXjE4np",
  "hyperparameters": {
    "n_epochs": 3
  "trained_tokens": 1754577,
  "error": null
ft_model = finetune_engine.get_finetuned_model()
OpenAI(callback_manager=<llama_index.callbacks.base.CallbackManager object at 0x176cfca90>, model='ft:gpt-3.5-turbo-0613:llamaindex::85sXTAx1', temperature=0.1, max_tokens=None, additional_kwargs={}, max_retries=10, api_key='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', api_type='open_ai', api_base='', api_version='', class_type='openai')
# Use fine-tuned model in RAG system
from llama_index import ServiceContext

ft_context = ServiceContext.from_defaults(
        "You are a helpful assistant helping to answer questions about the"
        " Llama 2 paper."
# fine-tuned RAG system
ft_query_engine = vector_index.as_query_engine(
    similarity_top_k=1, service_context=ft_context
response = ft_query_engine.query(
    "How is the margin component added in the loss of the reward model in"
    " Llama 2?"
The margin component is added in the loss of the reward model in Llama 2 by subtracting the reward score of the worse sample from the reward score of the better sample. This difference is then compared to a margin threshold. If the difference is greater than the margin threshold, it is considered a positive example and the loss is set to zero. If the difference is smaller than the margin threshold, it is considered a negative example and the loss is set to the margin threshold minus the difference. This margin component helps to separate the reward scores of the better and worse samples, making the reward model more accurate in distinguishing between them.
base_query_engine = vector_index.as_query_engine(similarity_top_k=1)
base_response = base_query_engine.query(
    "How is the margin component added in the loss of the reward model in"
    " Llama 2?"
The margin component is added in the loss of the reward model in Llama 2 by using a preference rating-based margin term. This margin term is used in Equation 2 and helps to separate comparison pairs more effectively. The magnitude of the margin term can be adjusted to achieve better performance on separable pairs, but it may regress performance on similar samples.

Evaluate Results

We run evaluations, over both the validation set but also the training set (as a sanity check)

import nest_asyncio

from llama_index.llms import ChatMessage
from llama_index.evaluation.eval_utils import get_responses, get_results_df
from llama_index.evaluation import BatchEvalRunner
# train_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_json("data_rag/qa_pairs_train.json")
# val_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_json("data_rag/qa_pairs_val.json")
# Load dataset
# NOTE: we need to run over the original questions, not the retrieval-augmented questions.
# Since our query engines will perform retrieval augmentation under the hood!

# TODO: have better code here
qr_pairs = load_dataset_from_other_nb("data/qa_pairs_2.jsonl")
eval_dataset = QueryResponseDataset.from_qr_pairs(qr_pairs)
# evaluate over training dataset for now
sample_size = 50

eval_qs = eval_dataset.questions[:sample_size]
ref_response_strs = [r for (_, r) in eval_dataset.qr_pairs[:sample_size]]
pred_responses = get_responses(eval_qs, ft_query_engine, show_progress=True)
base_pred_responses = get_responses(
    eval_qs, base_query_engine, show_progress=True
import numpy as np

pred_response_strs = [str(p) for p in pred_responses]
base_pred_response_strs = [str(p) for p in base_pred_responses]
from llama_index.evaluation import (

eval_service_context = ServiceContext.from_defaults(llm=OpenAI(model="gpt-4"))
# NOTE: can uncomment other evaluators
evaluator_c = CorrectnessEvaluator(service_context=eval_service_context)
evaluator_s = SemanticSimilarityEvaluator(service_context=eval_service_context)
evaluator_dict = {
    "correctness": evaluator_c,
    "semantic_similarity": evaluator_s,
batch_runner = BatchEvalRunner(evaluator_dict, workers=2, show_progress=True)
eval_results = await batch_runner.aevaluate_responses(
    eval_qs, responses=pred_responses, reference=ref_response_strs
base_eval_results = await batch_runner.aevaluate_responses(
    eval_qs, responses=base_pred_responses, reference=ref_response_strs
results_df = get_results_df(
    [eval_results, base_eval_results],
    ["RAG Fine-tuned LLM", "Base LLM"],
    ["correctness", "semantic_similarity"],
names correctness semantic_similarity
0 RAG Fine-tuned LLM 3.65 0.941940
1 Base LLM 3.25 0.917662